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Citation and Referencing: English Writing Process

Citation and Referencing: English Writing Process

The information for citation and referencing in this section was taken from “Citing sources1 What you read here is an abridged version which is probably all you need for now.

There are two ways in which you can refer to, or cite, another person’s work:

  1. By using direct quotation.
  2. By using reporting.

Direct Quotation

Use of quotes is expected by readers and professors alike. It helps you prove your point and creates more authority in your writing. Citation referencing should also be included in your summary.

Examples of using quotes can be expressed with reporting phrases like:

  • “He reported,”
  • “In his book he stated,”
  • “He said,”

These are only a few, but use them to show the authors main and supporting ideas.

Occasionally you may want to quote another author’s words exactly:

For example: Hillocks (1982) similarly reviews dozens of research findings. He writes, “The available research suggests that teaching by written comment on compositions is generally ineffective” (p. 267).

Also use references at the end of an Essay.

For example: Hillocks, G. (1982). The interaction of instruction, teacher comment, and revision in teaching the composing process. Research in the Teaching of English, 16, 261-278.

Reporting

This simply means putting another writer’s ideas into your own words.  You can either paraphrase if you want to keep the length the same or summarize if you want to make the text shorter.

Reporting verbs used differ in terms of their strength; for example, ‘to suggest’ is much weaker, and more tentative, than ‘to argue’. The two verbs convey very different pictures about how the author you are studying sees his or her materials and research. Some reporting verbs are used principally to say what the writer does and does not do. These verbs do not indicate any value judgment on the part of the writer; they are called ‘neutral’ reporting verbs. A second group of verbs is used to show when the writer has an inclination to believe something but still wishes to be hesitant; we call these ‘tentative’ reporting verbs. Finally, if the writer has strong arguments to put forward and is absolutely sure of his or her ground, we can use ‘strong’ reporting verbs to refer to these ideas.

Reporting verbs

Reporting frame examples

There are two main ways (Swales, 1990, p. 148) of showing that you have used another writer’s ideas:

1. Integral.

For example: According to Peters (1983) evidence from first language acquisition indicates that lexical phrases are learned first as unanalyzed lexical chunks.

or

Evidence from first language acquisition indicating that lexical phrases are learned first as unanalyzed lexical chunks was given by Peters (1983).

2. Non-integral.

For example: Evidence from first language acquisition (Peters, 1983) indicates that lexical phrases are learned first as unanalyzed lexical chunks.

or

Lexical phrases are learned first as unanalyzed lexical chunks (Peters, 1983).

If you want to refer to a particular part of the source:

For example: According to Peters (1983, p. 56) evidence from first language acquisition indicates that lexical phrases are learned first as unanalyzed lexical chunks.

For references at the end of an Essay:

For example: Peters, A (1983). The units of language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

To see the full article visit  Citing Sources at Wikipedia.org

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Notes:

  1. Wikipedia (2015, May 02).  Web log post retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources

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